Latvian Russians in Historiography of Latvia from 1990- 2010

Tatyana Feigmane

 «Ethnicity»- Russian Minorities in the Baltic States. – Institute of Social Investigations (Daugavpils University), Institute of Philisophy and Sociology (University of Latvia), 2010/3/, p. 30-62.

Problems related to history and culture of Russians in Latvia have not been looked into during the last 20 years. One can understand that there is interest about these problems because: 1) Researchers have got access to the broad archives and literature, unavailable to them earlier. 2) Working conditions have completely changed: the ideological censorship vanished (which was a big obstacle); investigating many themes, including ethnic history was impossible, because, in the opinion of those who were steering the history science in the Soviet period, it was contrary to the postulates of the Party principles and class differentiation. 3)The interest of Latvia’s Russians themselves about their history has noticeably increased, because they were facing the task of forming a new model of existence outside their ethnic Motherland, and the historical experience here was very important.

Key words: historiography, Latvian Republic, Russians in Latvia, Russian intelligentsia of Latvia, old believers.

Historiography of the last twenty-year period was not formed out of nothing. Contemporary researchers have inherited the works of historians and publicists of the Tsarist, the Republic and, in some cases, Soviet time1. And, this all is in spite of the fact, that Latvia has never had a noticeable amount of Russian humanitarian intelligentsia (before the World War I on the territory of Latvia there was only one higher educational establishment - Riga Polytechnic Institute; on its basis in 1919 Latvian University was founded, where due to quite understandable reasons, priority was given to the studies of the Latvian ethnos).

Among the researchers of the pre-revolutionary epoch, Evgraf Cheshikhin (1824 -1888)2 must be marked out. At the beginning of 1860s he was transferred to Riga to take the position of a clerk at Riga district engineering administration. His life was changed dramatically after he got acquainted to Riga and local Russian society. E.Cheshikhin dedicated himself to social, political life and publicism. In particular, he turned to sources on the history of ancient Livonia and, for the first time, translated „The Chronicles of Henry of Livonia” into Russian. In his works E. Cheshikhin (not being a historian) wrote about the political influence of Russian principalities in the Baltics. However, he was not impartial in his descriptions, as he frankly expresses the moods of minds of his time. Chauvinistic passages occurred very frequently in his publications3. And yet, it was not worth denying completely the significance of his works: he was the first to speak of Baltic-Slavonic ties in the pre-historical period, about the moving of Russians to the Baltic lands, about Riga old-believers; he studied very many archive documents. A great deal of work in local historiography was done also by Yury Samarin (1819-1876). His mission to Riga resulted in 6-volume work „Outskirts of Russia”4, where he substantiated the necessity of Russification of the Baltic provinces. The detail analysis and evaluation of works of the mentioned authors, have found its reflection in the monograph of the contemporary researcher Svetlana Kovalchuk 5. A number of works were dedicated to the history of Orthodoxy6. Still, notable for today remain articles of the writer Nikolay Leskov, evoked by his mission to Riga with the aim to get acquainted with the life of old-believers in order to open a school for them7.

A remarkable contribution into historiography of the question under consideration was made during the time of the first Latvian Republic (1918-1940). Nevertheless, even having a remarkable amount of literature, printed during that period, we do not find academic or strictly scientific editions. Popular-scientific literature and publications prevail. The most significant editions are collections „Russians in Latvia”, three issues of „Russian Annual” and a book by Sergey Sakharov (1880-1954) a teacher and a public figure, the Director of Daugavpils Belorussian secondary school about the higher Orthodox clergy of Riga Episcopasy ( later – archiepiscopate) in the course of a century and about orthodox churches in Latgalia 8. Archeography, enlightening and publishing activities of Ivan Zavoloko (1897-1984) have been of great significance for studies on the history of old-believers 9 . Returning to Riga after 16 years of penal servitude and exile ( the end of 1956 or the beginning of 1957), Zavoloko continued his archeographical researches and gained recognition of the most outstanding specialists in this sphere 10.

Some publications appeared even during the Soviet period. In particular, in the magazine „Voprosi Istorii” („Quesstions of History”, Moscow) the article „Moscow trading quarter in Riga in the 17th century” written by the Latvian researcher and archivist Georg Yensh (1900-1990)11 was published, and until now , it has been the most significant research in this field. Partly, the problem of Russian merchantry found its reflection in the monograph of Vasily Doroshenko (1921-1992) „Trade and merchantry of Riga in 17th century”12. V.Doroshenko is the author of more than 200 scientific works and is considered to be one of the best historians of the Soviet time, whose works have not lost their significance even with the dramatic changes in the political course. In 1985 came out Antonina Zavarina’s monograph „ Russian population in Eastern Latvia in the Second Half of the 19th and Beginning of the 20th Century” 13, which was prepared at the History Institute on the Academy of Sciences of the LSSR. This work has not lost its importance up to nowadays. Andris Caune must be specially marked out 14. According to this Latvian researcher, already in the 12th century, at the confluence of a small river Ridzene and the river Daugava a traditional trading place was formed, where, in summers during navigation period, Russian wax and fur traders met local citizens and foreign merchants. With reference to the data of archeological excavations and archive documents, the author gives a detailed description of the „Russian quarter”, which existed in Riga from 13th until the 16th century15. The book of A.Caune was one of the first works in Latvian historiography of post-Soviet period on „Russian footsteps” on the territory of Latvia in the period of early Middle Ages. This theme was successfully continued at the beginning of the 2000s by the Daugavpils researchers Alexander Ivanov and Anatoli Kuznetsov16, researchers from Daugavpils. The photographs of Latvian geographer and ethnographer Yury Novoselov published by A.Caune17 are also of great interest.

During the Soviet period the „centre of gravity” in the studies of „Russian themes” moved to philologists, to be politically more neutral. Ivan Fridrikh (1902-1975), have come back from exile in the middle of 1950s, continued collecting Russian folklore 18 , the work which he had started in 1930s. The so called „Fridrikh` Readings” (2002), organised by the Centre of Russistics at Latvia University, dedicated to the birth-centenary of Ivan Fridrikh can be regarded as a sign of acknowledgement oh his merits. As a result of these readings, a collection of articles19 with an opening article of Y.Abyzov „Marginal Notes of the Second Book by I.Fridrikh” was published. High appreciation I.Fridrikh`s works is shown by his folkloristics collegue B.Infantyev in his article „The Contribution of Ivan Fridrikh to Comparative Folkloristics”. A very notable publication was written by of Y.Kursite-Pakule called „Peter the First in the Latvian Folklore”. Among the authors of this collectaneum, there are names of such famous philologists and folklorists as L.Sproge, S.Olyonkin, N.Kononova, D.Nevskaya and others.

In the scientific circles, a very high appreciation was given to the works about Russian-Latvian language ties by Maria Semyonova (1910-1988) 20. Very popular, both, during the Soviet and the post-Soviet periods were the Russian language text-books for the national schools, prepared by Helena Franzman (1912-1996).

Rather many books about the Riga Russian Drama Theatre and some of its leading actors came out during the Soviet time21. However, most of them, alongside the rich factual material, demonstrate unnecessary ideological pathos, which reduces their value.

In 1970 the book by Arnold Podmazov (1936-2010) „Old-believers in Latvia” 22 written from the positions of governing that time atheistic ideology, was published. However, for that moment of time, it was a certain step in the studies of this problem. It is worth marking out, that A.Podmazov in 1990s critically reviewed his earlier estimates, and his new works23 were appreciated, both, by clergymen and parishioners of the Old Orthodox Pomorian church of Latvia, and by scientific circles. The work,started by him, is being successfully continued by Nadezhda Pazukhina24.

The articles written by Dmitry Levitsky (1907-2007) 25 who emigrated to the West in 1944 have stimulated formation and development of the post-Soviet historiography. These were “On the Status of Russians in the Independent Latvia” and „Nationality of a Victim is not Essential to the Communist Authorities”26. These articles gave a good start to the researchers, who undertook status studies of the of the Russian national minority in the period between the two World Wars, which had been a taboo the Soviet time.

A number of centres appeared in Latvia in 1990’s. They studied and promoted the history and culture of Russians in Latvia:

1)Yury Abyzov and the Latvian Society of Russian Culture led by him;

2)„The Russian community of Latvia” – later its functions were adopted by The Centre of humanitarian researches and enlightenment „Vedi”, then this work was joined by „Old-believers` society of Latvia”, which was founded in 1908 and renewed its activities in 1994. Illarion Ivanov was the initiator of this actions.

3) Latvian Orthodox Church (father Oleg Pelevin, Nadezhda Dyomina, the newspaper „Vinogradnaya loza”/”The Vine”);

4) Faculty of History and Philosophy of Latvia University (LU) (Alexander Gavrilin);

5) The Centre of Russistics at the Faculty of Philology of LU (Ludmila Sproge and others);

6) The Ethnic Research Centre of of the Institute of Philosophy and Sociology of LU (Ilga Apine, Vladislav Volkov, Leo Dribin).;

7) Svetlana Kovalchuk, Arnold Podmazov (The Institute of Philosophy and Sociology , LU);

8) Magazine of the Institute of LatvianHistory, LU ( „Latvijas vēstures institūta žurnāls”), as well as magazines “Latvijas vēsture /„ History of Latvia” and “Latvijas arhīvi /„ Archives in Latvia”;

9) Daugavpils University (Eduard Meksh, Iosif Trofimov, Fyodor Fyodorov and others);

10) Sergei Zhuravlyov (the society “Ulyei”/ „Beehive”);

11) Society of Slavic Historians (Oleg Pukhlyak);

12) journalists of the Russian-language Press (Yulia Alexandrova, Igor Vatolin, Alexander Gurin, Ilya Dimenshtein, Natalya Lebedeva, Alexander Malnach, Natalya Morozova, Elina Chuyanova and others);

13) The magazine „Clio” (Igor Gusev);

14) Researchers, who can not be included into any of the mentioned groups.


The framework of the article does not allow to characterizing all the works on history and culture of Russians in Latvia, published during the last 20 years. That is why only the publications considered by the author to be the most significant will be examined. To get a better understanding of historiography of national minorities in Latvia (not only the Russian minority), reading the article by Leo Dribin in the magazine „The magazine of the Latvian Institute of History”27 is suggested.

Analysis of contemporary historiography of the „Russian question” in Latvia is inconceivable without the analyzing the contribution of two outstanding scientists Yury Abyzov(1921-2006) and Boris Infantyev (1921-2009). Their creative activities can be relatively divided into two periods: Soviet and post-Soviet ones, the most significant works have been created by them during the last years of their lives. However, it does not mean, that the early period of their creativity must be forgotten. During the most stagnant years Abyzov and Infantyev accumulated the potential, which, to a considerable degree (unfortunately, not completely because of financial problems), they managed to realize.

Undoubtedly, the historiography of the „Russian question” in Latvia would not be developed so fast without Yury Abyzov’s „Russian printed word in Latvia : 1917-1944”, which was created in 1970-s and 1980-s, under such conditions with almost no hope to publish it. The work was successfully (secretly ) taken out of the USSR, and in 1990-1991 the Stanford University (USA) published it28. If not for the bibliography of Yury Abyzov, researchers would have to spend much more time doing the routine research work. This opinion of mine is based on my own experience while working at the monograph „Russians in the Pre-war Latvia”29, which covers three aspects: Russians in the political life of Latvia, Russian societies and Russian education. Y.Abyzov not only completed the bibliographical listing of all the periodical editions and books, printed in the Russian language in Latvia in the period from 1917 till1944 (and preserved by libraries), but also given short biographical data about authors, and has unveiled many pseudonyms. The work turned out to be outstandingly well-timed, because Yuri Abizov even managed to meet a number of former editorial workers of the of the pre-war editions (A.Formakov, A.Perov, K.Verhovskaya and others) and to receive invaluable information from them. Most probably, a great deal of the most interesting and valuable information Y.Abyzov has got from Ivan Zavoloko, whom he kept in touch with after the latter had returned from exile. The work was well-timed also due to the fact, that its publication coincided with the large-scale political changes: the downfall of the USSR, formation of new independent states, including reestablishment of the independence of Latvia, and, as a result, a splash of interest about the life in the pre-war Latvia.

The next important stage in the creative of Y.Abyzov began when he found the fund of the pre-war newspaper ”Segodnyia”/ „Today” in the depository of the Latvian State Historical archives. However, there was only correspondence of „Segonya” editorial board of 1930-1937 (the newspaper was being published from 1919 until 1940), it did not diminish the value of the published documents. Boris Ravdin worked side by side with Yuri Abizov. The so-called „intellectual centre” was led by the former resident of Riga, professor of the Stanford University, Lazar Fleishman. Some years of intensive work resulted into 5-volume edition „Russian Press in Riga: From the History of the Newspaper „Today” of 1930s”30. For today, it is the largest of scientific researches in Russian historiography of Latvia, which has contributed greatly to the source-research base and has let us look at many problems from a completely new aspect breaking the existing stereotypes. The significance of this work obviously exceeds the national limits. The introductory article of the authors gives an idea not only about the conditions, under which the editorial board of „Segodnya”/’Today” had to work in Latvia, but also shows the role of this newspaper in the culture of the Russians abroad.

„ Our publication included a numerously insignificant part of the documents”, noted the authors . „We were considering , both, the scientific significance of documents for the history of Russian press in Latvia and for the history of Russians abroad in general. We had an opportunity to compare the published frame of documents with the fragments from the working archives of the the Parisian „Poslednie novosti”/’ Latest news” board, preserved by B.Nikolayevski. Among them, there were casual, isolated materials of the beginning of 1930s and, only relying on them, it is impossible to form the notion about conditions of functioning of the Russian press abroad. As a contrast, the materials gathered by us, allow to depict - with sufficient completeness – the history of Russian public life and culture in dispersion in 1930s, as well as the dynamics of Latvian and international political situation of that time”31. The editorial board of „Segodnya” not only used the best of the available local journalists personnel, but actively involved notable journalists and writers living abroad. Among the correspondents of „Segodnya” there were: Mark Aldanov, Alexander Amfiteatrov, Konstantin Balmont, Nina Berberova, Ivan Bunin, Georgy Ivanov, Zinaida Gippius, Leonid Zurov, Alexander Kuprin, Vladimir Nabokov, Vasily Nemirovich-Danchenko, Igor Severyanin, Teffi, Marina Tsvetayeva, Sasha Chyorny, Ivan Shmelyov and many others. This correspondence shows not only the cknowledgement of the authority of the newspaper and its editors. This correspondence gives the reader a broad spectrum of views about prominent figures of Russian emigration in the period between the two World Wars, all the correspondence being commented in detail by the authors of this fundamental edition. From that editorial correspondence we can lso notice the striving of the editorial board to influence political processes in Latvia, in particular, to influence Russian deputies (naturally, before the 15th of May , 1934).

In 1993, thanks to the efforts of Yuri Abizov and the Latvian society of Russian culture, founded by him, the first volume of “From Livland to Latvia”32, including mainly articles of journalists from the pre-revolutionary „Rizhsky vestnik”/„Riga herald” and the above mentioned newspaper „Segodnya”/”Today”, saw the light. As to their content, the articles of the first volume cover the epoch from the Middle Ages until the New Times, but, as to the time of writing – from 1880 to 1935. The collection contains a broad selection of articles of Boris Shalfeyev (1891-1935): „St.Christofer”, „About the Goblet Thrown Down from St.Peter`s Church Tower”, „Peter the First in the House of Dannenshtern”, „How Riga residents did not notice Wagner”, „The Oldest Ancient Russian Cemetery in Riga” and others. Fyodor Pavlov (1872-1933) with the pen-name Spectator, is also among the authors. He has written the following articles: „Grandiose Public Merry-making in Olden Times”, „Russian Merchantry in Riga in the Past”, „New Year’s Celebration in Riga in Olden Times”, and others; there are also articles by others - not less famous „pen- sharks”. The second volume of „From Livland to Latvia”33 is collection of articles, published in the period from 1917 until 1938. As mentioned in the foreword by the compiler, „It is impossible not to be impressed, that alongside the historically proved facts, the reality is given also in the „author’s interpretation”: myths, legends and frank fiction, i.e. the derivative from the historical reality, stipulated by the „state of minds”34. Two-volume work „From Livland to Latvia” does not claim to be scientific. This edition was meant for ordinary readers. Moreover, in the situation of temporal lack of the profound scientific researches, books of such a type promoted the development of interest to the past of the Russian community in Latvia. Among the authors of the second volume Boris Shalfeyev (known also as B.Pomorsky) must be repeatedly marked out Sketches about the Moscow suburb of Riga (forshtadt) was left by Georgy Ivanov (1894-1958) - one of the most prominent men of letters among the Russians living abroad, who was a frequent guest in Riga, where father of his spouse Irina Odoyevtsova (1895-1990), the advocate Gustav Heinike owned a house in the Moscow Suburb. Articles of Yanis Sudrabkalns(1894-1975), a Latvian poet, were also included into that collection. There are also works by Sergey Mintslov (1870-1933), a popular writer in the pre-war Riga, a journalist Henrich Grossen (Neo Silvester) (1881-1974), writers Yury Galich(1877-1940), Leonid Zurov (1902-1971) and others. The second volume includes also an interesting illustrative material, selected by Y.Abyzov. General public can be interested to in the lists of former and contemprorary names of towns, settlements and rivers of the Baltics, as well as the names of streets in Riga, districts and localities, mentioned in the book. As it is known, toponimics of the Baltics, has undergone many changes due to political cataclysms.

Y.Abizov was one of the initiators of the anthology „The Baltic Archives”, in which materials on the history of Russian culture of the three Baltic states – Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia – would be printed. The first three volumes of „The Baltic Archives” come out in mid-1990s in Tallinn, edited by professor Irina Belobrovtseva. Among the first publications, which appeared in „The Baltic Archives” and were related to Latvia, we must mark out MARTIROLOG by the representatives of Russian intelligentsia of Latvia, who undergone repressions, compiled by Y.Abyzov, B.Plyukhanov, G.Tailov; the memoirs of Boris Engelgardt (1877-1962) – the former chamber-page of the Empress–mother Maria Fyodorovna, the deputy of the 4th State Duma, an active participant in the February revolution, the first commandant of Petrograd, a participant of the White movement, an emigrant (first in Paris, then in Riga ). Also the reminiscences of Sergey Sidyakov (1893-1965): „Chronicle of the refugee-life”, telling about the afflictions of a Russian merchant family during the years of the Civil War. The 4th -6th volumes of „The Baltic Archives” were published already under supervision of the international editorial board. Irina Belobrovtseva was joined by Pavel Lavrinets (Lithuania) and Yuri Abizov (Latvia). In comparison with the previous volumes, the new ones were thicker and had illustrations. The most interesting were the articles by V.Doroshenko „Inhabitants of Old Riga in 1786” and Y.Abyzov „The Concept of Euroasianism and Latvia’s Russians”, the publication of Y.Abyzov and T.Feigmane „Unjust Justice over the Lawyer Yakoby”. Memoirs of Pyotr Pilsky were also extremely popular. The seventh volume was edited in Vilnius. Here we can mark out - of the articles on the Russian-Latvian theme - „The novel by Austra Ozolinya-Krauze about the Russian emigration” written by Lyudmila Sproge and Vera Vavere. The eighth volume was again edited in Riga. Here again one can find reminiscences of Boris Engelgardt, but, this time, they are about the years of „hard times” and emigration, as well as reminiscences of the former colonel of the General Staff Boris Yordan (1888-1956): „My family chronicles”, where he, by the way, recalls his childhood spent in Riga. Moreover , the last 10th volume, came out also in Riga, thanks to the untiring work of Y.Abyzov (at that time already very ill) and to the work of the editorial board of the magazine „Daugava”. Extracts from reminiscences of the artist Eugene Klimoff (1901-1990) were included into this volume. His artist’s career had started in the pre-war Riga. During the War, he emigrated to the West. The reminiscences offered to the reader tell about the first stage of his life as in artist. The letter selection of Tatyana Erenstein-Litvina (for 1938-1939) is also of great interest. She has been an active participant of the Orthodox Unity of Russian Students , working in Riga from 1928 until 1934. Being a member of the „Unity”, she was keen on icon-painting. At the end of the 1930s she had the luck to perfect herself in icon-painting in the Holy Land, to be more precise, she took part in decorating the Temple on the Eleon mountain in Jerusalem. In the presented letters, the reader gets in touch with the personal perception of the holy places and events connected with them. The last volume of „The Baltic Archives” for now came out in Tallinn in 200635. Eleven volumes of „The Baltic Archives” have filled many laccunae, that have existed before concerning the history and culture of Russians in the Baltics. “The Baltic Archives” have introduced into scientific usage a considerable number of earlier unknown sources, have helped to draw together scientists, working in this field in Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia.

In 2003, a bibliographical directory „The Russian Book of Latvia. 1990-2001”36, was prepared and edited by the Latvian Society of Russian Culture and the magazine „Daugava”.

Historiography of the last 60 years is inconceivable without Boris Infantyev. Ivan Yanis Mikhailov who had studied his biography and creative work, characterized him as follows: „ A folklorist, a specialist in literature, a linguist, a pedagogue, a culturologist, a historian, a regional specialist, a public figure, a holder of the of Three Stars order. A man with encyclopaedic knowledge and amazing capacity for work. A professor, an honoured doctor of pedagogics, candidate of philological philological sciences. His name is put down in the history of Latvian folkloristics, in the history of Latvian pedagogics, in the history of Latvian culture, as well, he is on the list of the outstanding representatives of Russians in Latvia. He was a man, symbolizing the entire epoch in scientific, public, spiritual and cultural life, a patriarch and authority of the intelligentsia of Latvia and the Russian community of Latvia”37. B.Infantyev is the author of more than 500 scientific publications. The first stage of his creative activity was mainly connected with studies of the Latvian and Russian folklore, Russian-Latvian cultural ties, pedagogics (B.Infantyev had worked at the Institute of Scientific Researches in Pedagogics for more than 35 years). „We can surely say that, starting with 1955 and up to 1991, no study program, no text-book, no methodical hand-book on the Russian language and literature, were edited without active participation of Boris Infantyev – the author, the leader of the authors’ body, reviewer”38.

Among the works of B.Infantyev written during the Soviet time, the following ones can be mentioned: E. Beikman, B.Infantiev , V.Tsitovich „Questions of the Methods of Tteaching the Russian language in the Latvian Schools”; H.Frantsman., B.Infantiev., O.Vilan, M.Semyonova „The Russian Language for Forms IX-XI at Schools with Latvian language of Instruction”; B. Infantyev „ Book on Latvian Literature for Forms V-VIII at Schools with Russian Language of Instructione”39. B.Infantyev has written many works in co-authorship with A.Losev. They are such works as, „Storm petrels”, „ Rainis’s Riga”, „Through the distance of times (Fonvizin in Latvia)”, „ Fishermen’s Semi-precious stones”, „Friendship of the two Literatures. 100 years of the Book (Lev Tolstoy’s „War and Peace” and the Latvian Readers)”. „The Russian word”– a text-book for forms IX-XI of evening-shift schools and many others40.

After 1990, a new stage began in Boris Infantyev,s the creative. work. His creative potential was fully revealed. The creative union of Boris Infantyev and Alexander Losev was continued by preparing the textbooks for secondary schools: „Latvia in the Destiny and Creativity of Russian writers.”(Folklore, Russian-Latvian literary relations at the end of 18th I – beginning of 19th century) as well as „The Lines Addressed to Latvia” (Russian-Latvian literary ties, 2-nd half of 19th century). Among the numerous articles by professor Infantyev we can mark out:”Latgalian Old-believer swith the Eyes of Latvian Writers”, „The Image of a Russian in Latvian Folklore”, „The Russian Language and Literature in Latvian Schools in 20s-30s.”, „Russians on the land of Latvians” (in the pre-Livonian times), „Pages of Reminiscences about Ivan Zavoloko”, „The image of Latvia of 20s and 30s in the Creative Works of Russian Writers Abroad” 41 and many others. In 2007, the society „Vedi” published the fundamental work of B.Infantyev „Baltic- Slavonic cultural ties”42. Unfortunately, the work has never been finished, only one volume was published.

At the beginning of 1990s, during the wave of „Perestroika”, „The Russian community of Latvia” was established. It tried to unite all the Russians under their aegis.The Community chose scientific and enlightening work to be one of the directions of their activities. However, the society failed to do a lot in this field. In 1992, a collection „The Russians in Latvia”43 was published. However, three out of four articles in this collection were taken from the collectaneum „Russians in Latvia” published in 1934. And only one article by A.Fedotov „Statistics on National Composition of of Latvian population during 110 years.” showed materials based on the latest statistical data and analysis. In 1997, the second number of „Russians in Latvia”44 was published It turned out to be not only more significant in comparison with the first one, but also different in quality. The collection contained specially prepared materials: Y.Abizov „20 Years of Russian Press in the Independent Latvia”, T.Feigmane „Russian Societies in Latvia (1920-1940)”, „Russian professors at Latvia the University (1919-1940)”, B.Infantyev „The Image of a Russian in Latvian Folklore”, „The Russian Language and Literature in Latvian Schools in 20s-30s”. In 2002 the third number of the „Russians in Latvia” came out45. The new edition differed substantially from the previous ones. The edition become bigger in volume and contained illustrations. The quality of the articles had increased, as well as their scientific significance. Among the authors of the third number we can mentioned: A.Zavarina „Russian Population of Latvia (on the history of settlements)”, V.Nikonov „From the History of Rezhitsa Churchyard Old-believers’ Community (1858-1940)”, A.Zhilko „Spiritual Verses in an Old-believers’ Family of Latvia”, I.Mirolyubov „ On the History of Spiritual Education of Old-believers in the Baltics.” , T.Feigmane „Old-believers as Deputies in Latvian Saeima”, B.Infantyev „Russian Writers about Old-believers in Riga and Latgale region” and „Latvian Old-believers in the Works of Latvian Prose-writers” and others. The third number of the „Russians in Latvia” became the sign of changing accents - from other Russian themes to the theme about Old-believers. It can be explained, both, by the increased activity of Old-believers themselves and their rooting on Latvian land.

In 1999 a collection of articles and materials, dedicated to the birth-centenary of Ivan Zavoloko46 came out. Editing the collection „Old Belief in Latvia”47 was the next logical step. A notable fact is , that not only the society „Vedi” and „The Old-believers Society” , but also Riga Grebenshchikov Old-believers’ Community and the Institute of Philosophy and Sociology of the Latvia University took part in preparing and editing this collection. Thus, the theme of the research on the Old Faith got support from the academic circles of Latvia, in particular, from the director of the Institute of Philosophy and Sociology Maiya Kule. The collection was compiled from materials of the International conference, which took place in Riga, on April 29-30, 2004. Among the authors of the collection should be mentioned: father Alexei Zhilko, B.Infantyev, I.Apine, V.Volkov, N.Pazukhina, E.Meksh, S.Olyonkin, I.Trofimov, A.Zavarina, A.Gavrilin, O.Pukhlyak, S.Kovalchuk, A.Rakityansky, T.Feigmane (Latvia), as well as such foreign scientists as: N.Bubnov (Russia), G.Ponomaryova, T.Shor (Estonia), G.Potashenko (Lithuania), V.Dorn (Germany).

In 2006 a collection of the „International Zavoloko’ s readings”48 ,prepared for editing by „I.N.Zavoloko Old-believers’ society” in co-operation with the Baltic International Academy (former Baltic Russian Institute), was published.

In 2008, Vladimir Nikonov, a researcher from Rezekne, published his book „Old Beliefs of Latgale” 49. This was an attempt to carry out the first profound research on the history of Latgalian Old-believers. Relying on archive documents, the author has presents the history of Latgalian Old-believers’ communities, starting with the second half of the 17th century.

Svetlana Kovalchuk, the leading scientific worker of the Institute of Philosophy and Sociology of LU, has been one of the first researchers who undertook the studies of the history of Russian philosophic thought in Latvia. In 1998 her monograph „ Searching for the Truth...” (From the history of the Russian religious, philosophic and public(ly)-political thought in Latvia from he middle of the 19th until the middle of the 20th century: Y.F.Samarin, E.V.Cheshikhin, K.F.Zhakov, A.V.Veideman)50. It was the first important attempt of contemporary scientists to evaluate the abovementioned public figures, historians and philosophers. In particular, almost nothing was known about such philosophers as Veideman and Zhakov. During her further work, the author managed to substantially deepen and broaden her knowledge about Kallistrat Zhakov51 and about traditions of Russian philosophy in Latvia52. S.Kovalchuk has carried out an outstanding study on the life and creative work of Vasily Sinaisky (1876-1949) – one of the most famous legal scientists and public figures among the Russians living abroad 53. The above-mentioned author continued her deep studies of the Russian culture in Latvia based on the archive sources. S.Kovalchuk has written an article saturated with interesting facts about Igor Chinnov54 a poet and former resident of Riga. In her scientific work, S.Kovalchuk has also touched the theme of the Old-Faith55.

A special attention must be paid to the works, prepared by the Centre of Ethnic Studies of the Institute of Philosophy and Sociology of LU. These are works by Ilga Apine, Leo Dribin and Vladislav Volkov, on ethno-sociology and published in Latvian language. In the second half of 1990s, the Centre prepared and edited a series of works dedicated to Russians, Ukrainians, Belorussians, Jews, Polish, Lithuanians and other people, living in Latvia. In particular, Vladislav Volkov prepared the work „Russians in Latvia”56. At that time it was the first edition, in which an attempt was made (from contemporary scientific positions) to analyze the state and development of self-consciousness of the Russian population of Latvia at different stages of historic development: during the Russian Empire time, in the independent Latvia, under the circumstances of annexation of 1940-1941, in the period of German occupation, in the Soviet time and in Latvia after reestablishment of independence. An experimental methodological hand-book on the history of national minorities of Latvia, recommended for usage by the Ministry of Education of the Republic of Latvia was printed in 1998. The section, dedicated to Russians was prepared by V.Volkov57. Compared to the previous work, in this article, the author has given a more detailed analysis of the situation, in which Russians had found themselves in the period from 1945 until 1990, and has managed to show the reasons of their weak integration into Latvian society.

Analysis of Russian public and political life during the first years after reestablishment of Latvian independence is very interesting. The monograph by Ilga Apine and Vladislav Volkov „Slavs in Latvia”(an essay on the ethnic history)”58 was published on the same year. The authors of the monograph, following strictly the scientific approach, had studied the process of Slavs’ appearance on the territory of Latvia as well as their interrelations, at first, with the Baltic tribes, and, later, with the Latvian ethnos. Exceptionally important is the chapter on Russians in Latvia in 19th and the beginning of 20th century: on the development of the Russian public life, formation of the local Russian identity and Russian national self-consciousness in multicultural environment, as well as the civic consciousness. The monograph also deals with problems of the Ukrainian and the Belorussian national identity on the territory of Latvia. For today, the mentioned monograph is one the deepest studies of the Slav factor in the ethnic history of Latvia.

In 2007, the Centre of Ethnic Studies published one more book about national minorities in Latvia (compiler L.Dribin)59. The section of Latvia’s Russians was again written by professor Vladislav Volkov. Beside the already mentioned themes, V.Volkov has touched upon the painful question about the attitude of Latvia’s Russians to establishment of Stalin’s and Hitler’s repressive regimes. There is also analysis of contemporary Russian societies’ activities, their role in preserving and strengthening the national, the cultural and the language identity.. The author also speaks about formation of the political consciousness of Latvia’s Russians, gives characteristics of parties, which declare themselves defenders of the „Russian interests”. Special scientific interest was aroused by the last monograph written by Ilga Apine and Vladislav Volkov „Identity of Russians in Latvia: Historical and Sociological essay”60. With the help of this monograph the authors have made the studied themes more vivid. Among the questions, raised in their work, are the following ones: historical preconditions of the collective identity of Russian inhabitants, the Russian theme in the works of Latvian authors, the influence of the Latvian legislation on the identity of the Russian minority, linguistic identity as an object of social sciences, the Russian minority of Latvia in search of its linguistic identity and structurization, the social role of the linguistic collective identity of Russians in Latvia, peculiarities of the ethnic behaviour of the Latvia’s Russians. I wish the above-mentioned works of the Centre of Ethnic Studies could be translated into Russian, thus getting the wider reading audience (both, in Latvia, in Russia and in the world in general).

The book by Boris Plykhanov (1911-1993); „RSChM in Latvia and Estonia”61 has been one of the first books about the Russian spiritual and public life during the period of the first independence. The book was written in the years, when nobody could dream about publishing it in Latvia. That is why the author gave the manuscript to YMCA-Press, which published the book. The author of this book was an active member of the Russian Student Orthodox Unity (RSOU) in Riga, which was a constituent part of the Russian Student Christian Movement (RSChM) . B.Plyukhanov has thoroughly depicted all the events, connected with the foundation of RSChM and its work in Latvia and Estonia. In his opinion : „The movement is not a party, neither political, nor national, nor clerical. It is something different - much deeper. It is a new flow in the spiritual life of Russian youth; a Russian, Orthodox way of thinking and life of the Russian youth, both, the emigrant youth and that born, growing up and living in their natural places, within the newly established independent states on the territory of the former Russian Empire”62. However, presentations of materials in the book is presented very dry, in the way of reports. Rather often, we can notice the author’s wish to by-pass the „inconvenient” questions, such as relations of RSOU with Archbishop Ioann Pommer . All this reduces the value of the book.

Coming of the post-Soviet epoch raised the interest about the history of the Ortodox Church, reduced the ideological clichés, imposed by the earlier atheistic ideology. The main and a very scrupulous researcher on this theme is professor of the Latvia University Alexander Gavrilin. In 1999, his monograph „Essays on the History of Riga Eparchy”63 was published. This work, based on the broad source-researches, became an important contbution into the history of the Latvian Orthodox Church. In 1993, A.Gavrilin edited the first collection „Orthodoxy in Latvia”. Today, we have 8 numbers of this collection64. Among the most interesting publications are: A.Kulis „ The question of Autonomy of the Latvian Orthodox Church in the 30s of the 20th century”, N.Feldman-Kravchyonok „Russian Student Orthodox Unity in Latvia”, K.Obozny (Russia)”Orthodox Mission in the Baltics in 1941-1944” and „Collaborationism and Church Rebirth on German occupied territories in 1941-1944: Activities of the Pskov Mission and the Baltic Exarchat”, the memoirs of father Georgi Tailov, the architect Vladimir Shervinsky and others. In 2009, a monograph of A.Gavrilin about the archbishop Ioann (Garklavs)(1898-1982) was published in St.Petersburg (Russia)65.

At the end of 1990s book by Nadezhda Dyomina (1921-2008) „Holy Trinity and st. Sergey Women’s Convent”66 appeared. It was the first research of such type on the history of an orthodox temple in Latvia. In addition to it, the mentioned author prepared small brochures on the history of Riga orthodox temples : „Johann the Baptist Church”, „The Church of st. Alexander Nevsky”, „The Archangel Michael Church” and others.

In 2006, the Synod of the Latvian Orthodox Church edited a beautifully illustrated album with description of the history of Riga Orthodox Cathedral of the Nativity of Christ (in Russian, in Latvian and in English)67.

From September 1997, with blessing of Alexander - Head of the Latvian Orthodox Church, a monthly newspaper „Vinogradnaya loza” („The Vine”) is being printed. It does not only introduce its readers to the basic postulates of Orthodoxy and tell about church holidays, but also gives the opportunity to get acquainted to history of Orthodxy in Latvia, to destinies of clergymen, to the history of temples. In particular, of a great interest to the readers, may be the article written by father Oleg (Pelyevin) about Vladimir Lunsky, a synodal architect , published in the „Vinogradnaya Loza” 68.

It is noteworthy, that history of Orthodoxy in pre-Livonian period got within the sight of Indrikis Shtern, a Latvian historian-emigrant who published a series of articles on this theme in the magazine of the Latvia University „Latvia’s History”69. The article „Latvians and Russians in the Medieval Riga”70 also belongs to the same author.

The book „ Pokrov Churchyard. Fame and Oblivion”71, prepared by Svetlana Vidyakina and Svetlana Kovalchuk has substantially contributed to historiography of Russians in Latvia. Pokrov cemetery is the oldest orthodox cemetery in Riga (excluding the one in the medieval „Russian quarter”), which appeared in 18th century. Many prominent inhabitants of Riga have found their eternal peace there. Unfortunately, time is pitilessly doing its work. The majority of burial-places have suffered from decay, and some of them have disappeared completely. For a very long period of time nobody paid any attention to this cemetery, vandals were doing ther dirty work without any punishment. S.Vidyakina and S.Kovalchuk have conducted a remarkable research work and have brought out of oblivion the names of many Riga residents buried at the Pokrov cemetery. The book has not only added to the „money-box” of knowledge about our predecessors, but has also agitated public opinion after which reconstruction works of the decayed cemetery began.

One of the pioneers studying history of Russians in Latvia was Sergei Zhuravlyov and the society ‘Ulyei”, founded by him. S.Zhuravlyov is the author of many popular scientific publications72.

In 1999, a collection of articles and reminiscences „Riga City Russian High School (former Lomonosov’s) 73, with materials not only about the best Russian school of the pre-war Latvia and its teachers, but also there also with description of the general situation, in which Russian schools found themselves during the years of the first independence. The collection was compiled with participation of M.Saltupe, T.Feigmane and D.Levitsky (USA).

In 2002, the book of Eugene Klimoff (1901-1990) „Russian artists”74 came out in Riga. First, this book was published in New York in 1974 and was not available to Latvian readers. Only, thanks to the selflessness of E.Klimov’s former pupil, Margarita Saltupe, it became possible to publish the book in Latvia. The book is remarkable also because of the fact, that two articles about the artist himself are included into it. These are the articles by V.Sergeyev (Russia) „Three Loves of the Artist Klimoff” and R.Polchaninov (USA) „The Artist E.Klimoff”. Next step was publishing the selection of works by Eugene Klimoff75, which was done by his son Alexis Klimoff (USA).

In 2003, thanks to the efforts of Anatoly Rakityansky ‘Riga’s Bibliophile”76 saw the light. Among the materials related to Latvia there are the following ones: A.Rakityansky „Remembering S.Mintslov”, Y.Abyzov „Riga’s Publishing Houses of 1920-1930s”, V.Eikhenbaum „Photo-report on the Days of Peter the First in Riga”, F.Talberg „Portrait of the Legendary Hero about Yakov Kulnyev)” and others.

In the same year, Felix Talberg published a nicely illustrated album with descriptions dedicated to Michael Barklay-de-Tolly77 in which readers can get acquainted to life and activities of the outstanding general and our compatriot.

Nina Lapidus, an art historian and critic from Riga actively worked studying life of such Russian artists as Segey Vinogradov (1869-1938) and Nikolay Bogdanov-Belsky (1868-1945). In 2001 N.Lapidus (the author-compiler) published the book of reminiscences of Sergey Vinogradov „Former Moscow”78. The same author recently published in St.-Petersburg (Russia) several new works about the creative life of the mentioned artists.

In 1990s Russian historians of Latvia were joined by the talanted youth – the graduates of History Department of LU. In 2003, Oleg Pukhlyak and Dmitry Borisov published a textbook for the regular schools „Russians in Latvia”79. Even though the book had many values, it was not used by majority of Russian schools. As for its character, the book is more like a popular-scientific edition, not the handbook for pupils. O.Pukhlyak continued his fruitful work: spoke at different conferences reporting on various themes. His articles are included into many of the above mentioned collections. One of the latest of O.Pukhlyak’s works „100 Russian portraits in the history of Latvia”80 became a popular-scientific edition. However, somehow doubtful is the selection of personalia (including the persons with no concrete ties with Latvia, which have never lived and worked here). The book does not include any references. Analogical edition „Outstanding Russians of Latvia”81(the project coordinator Igor Gusev) came out almost at the same time. This book, in contrast to the previous one, was created by a group of authors’. Moreover, as for its scientific significance, its level is much higher. Speaking about the drawbacks of this edition, we can mention the absence of references to the authorship of the concrete articles.

In the recent years a number of collections of articles by Ilya Dimenshtein82 , a journalist and collector from Riga, appeared. Beautiful illustrations and very easy language make these books popular among general readers. However, most articles are based on publications from the old Russian press ( before 1940), and sometimes bear the compilation character.

One of the latest publications is collection „ Russians of the Baltics: History in the Monuments of Culture (1710-2010)83. Alexander Gaponenko’s idea to collect under one roof all the materials about the monuments of Russian culture in the Baltics, deserves great respect. The group of authors and the editorial board have done substantial work. However, not all the articles meet the contemporary requirements. Not all editorial correcting has been useful. In addition, the quality of illustrations could have been better. Perhaps, the authors of this collection should have followed the principle „better less but better”. Nevertheless, the book has filled one more gap in the history and culture of the Baltic Russians.

The reminiscences, in which the historical facts are seen through the prism of of the concrete people’s are invaluable sources of information.. Our historiography does not stand out with the number of memoirs. In the emigration, the reminiscences about the life in Riga, were written by Henrich Grossen (1881-1974) – a well-known journalist, teacher and public figure in the pre-war Riga. Latvian readers got access to these reminiscences only in 1994, when its were publishd in the magazine „Daugava”84. While reading Grossen, one becomes utterly engrossed by the social and politic atmosphere of 1920s-1930s. The reminiscences are full of subjective evaluations given by prominent Russian public figures of that time, with which we cannot hardly always agree. The reminiscences of Natalia Sinaiskaya 85 - the daughter of professor Vasily Sinaisky, were written in emigration (but edited already in Riga). Her reminiscences, in general, refer to the life and daily routine of people from academic circles. Compared to H.Grossen’s memoirs, the work of Natalia Sinaiskaya is more impartial and objective. The reminiscences of Natalia Sinaiskaya were highly appreciated in the magazine „Hhistory of Latvia”86. Two books were published by the Latvian old-resident Dmitry Anokhin 87. However, absence of personal evaluation of the historical events, which he managed to live through, is the week point in his works. Very often reminiscences substitute retelling or citing materials from educational and scientific literature. Perhaps, the most valuable from all the memoirs is the book by Tamara Nikiforova 88, telling about her childhood in Riga, about deportation on June 14, 1941 and her the life in Sibirian exile. In 2006, a book of Igor Zakke „About the People Around, Relatives and I” was published. It included only a segment of family’s chronicles, written by him89. In 2008, the reminiscences of Galina Petrova-Matisa (1914-2000) about her husband Vladimir Petrov90, the famous chess grand-master in the pre-war Latvia saw the light. The author failed to complete her work, and only some years after her death, the grandson of G.Petrova-Matisa found the manuscript and prepared it for publishing. From the reminiscences related to the recent past, the book of Vladlen Dozortsev „The Present Past time 91, written in good literary language and reflecting the life of creative intelligentsia (from the author’s point of view) during the Soviet decades and in the years of downfall of the Soviet system, must be marked out. In 2006, the magazine of the Institute of History, was published in Latvian as a segment of the reminiscences by Vasily Savchenko – a History doctor who has worked at the Insitute for a long period of time 92.

Close to reminiscences in spirit and in content is the book „Ruthenia’ in Riga and abroad”93, edited by the Latvian Society of Russian Culture. A number of articles were written specially for this book, the other part consists of reminiscences of the Russian student corporation „Ruthenia” members (founded in Riga in 1929). The book gives the history of the origin of Russian student corporations in the Baltics (it is not a characteristic thing for Russia) as well as tells about the first years of existence of the Corporation in Riga. Nevertheless, perhaps, the sections, related to the activities of the Corporation and the corporates in dispersion, are more interesting for contemporary reader. The book opens to its readers the previously unknown pages related to the second wave of emigration.

A considerable number of articles, related to the history of Russians of Latvia, was published in the magazine „Daugava” (1977-2008). During several decades, the magazine has been the megaphone of the local humanitarian Russian intelligentsia. Such sections as journalism, culturology and memoria became especially interesting at the beginning of „Perestroika”(reconstruction). Among the articles, published in the „Daugava”, we can mark out : Y.Abyzov. “Pyotr Pilsky. Experiments of the Metropolitan and Provincial Biography.” (1993, Nr5), T.Feigmane „ Russian School in Latvia: 1919-1940) (1993, Nr3), Fyodor Ern. “40 Years of Llife of a Russian Intellectual”, a publication of Y.Abyzov (1993, Nr2); Y.Abyzov „Russians in Latvia” (1994, Nr6), I.Apine „Integration or Assimilation?”(1996, Nr4), Y.Abyzov „Provincialities or marginalia?”(1996, Nr6), V.Volkov „National Sel-fconsciousness of the Russian youth in Latvia” (1996, Nr1), B.Ravdin. “E.Tichonitsky. The Enlightener at the Cross-roads of Epochs.” (1997, Nr3), B.Infantyev „Curriculum Vitae” (2000, Nr3), B.Ravdin „ Is Yury Abyzov 80?”(2001, Nr6), D.Levitsky „ Mystery of the Investigation of the Murder of the Archbishop Ioann (Pommer)”(2003, Nr6), T.Feigmane „Whether the Unjust Rule will Come after the Strong Power?” (2003, Nr5), R.Polchanonoff „Riga. February-July 1944” (2004, Nr2), L.Obolenskaya-Flam „Tasya” (2004, Nr2), M.Altemente „My destiny – I have Two Mothers.”(2005, Nr3/4), I.Zakke „In Memoriam of the Russian Ivanovs Library in Riga” (2005, Nr1), V.Volkov „Russians in Riga” (2006, Nr1) and many others. Unfortunately, due to financial problems, the magazine „Daugava” with its peculiar charm fostered by its editors and authors, has stopped its work.. To mark the 30th anniversary of the magazine a listing was carried out. It not only gives the opportunity to find the necessary articles, but also shows the permanent importance of this magazine94.

Russian journalism did not die But with the „death” of „Daugava”. In 2004, Sergey Mazur founded the almanac SEMINARIUM HORTUS HUMANITATIS. By the end of 2010, already 23 almanacs will have been published. For example, volumes XIV and XXI, prepared by professor Yury Sidyakov, are dedicated to archbishop Ioann(Pommer), a number of articles in volume XIX are in memoria of Boris Infantyev, and some are dedicated to the book of Marina Kostenetskaya „ A clown for Sale, Cheap”, etc. For the time being, it is the only Russian language periodical regularly published in Latvia edition on humanitarian themes.

 In 1999, „The old-believers’ Society in Latvia” edited the first number of the magazine “Pomorsky vestnik”/„Pomorian Herald”. Until today (November, 2010) 23 numbers have seen the light. Number by number, the magazine edited by Illarion Ivanov, has changed, both, visually and content vise. Publications, on not only on spiritual themes, but also scientific ones, connected with the history of Old-Faith, appear in the magazine regularly. Documents and articles on genealogical trees of old-believers’ families in Latvia ( the Ivanov, Krasnopyorov, Starikov, Plotnikov, Yermolayev, Nikonov, Isayev-Lavrentyev and others). The article by B.Infantyev „Ivan Fridrikh(1902-1975)” was published in Nr.1, 2003). The article by A.Gavrilin „The Attitude of Lutsin(Ludza) Piety Priesthood to the Old-believers in the Second Half of 19th - the beginning of 20th century” was published. Such researchers as A.Gurin, B.Meksh, A.Podmazov, A.Rakityansky, I.Trofimov and others published their works in “Pomorsky vestnik”. Many articles are dedicated to the history of old-believers’ praying houses and to the life of the old-believers’ communities today.

Examining historiography of Russians in Latvia, it is difficult not to notice some gaps. A number of works, especially related to the pre-historic period and to the Middle Ages, can hardly may be considered scientific. We lack scientific works, which would give integral panorama of the life of Russians in the Baltic provinces the 18th –19th centuries. The role of Russians in the period of modernization (the end of 19th – the beginning of 20th century) has not been sufficiently studied. One of the few serious to study the period was undertaken by Irina Kruminya in the article „ Russian Society and the Process of Formation of Political Parties in Latvia from 1905-190795. Due to some reasons, this theme has not been developed further. Only some weak attempts were made to comprehend the position of the Latvia’s Russians during the German occupation. Latvian researchers being the pioneers of this study, in particular, Uldis Neiburgs96, a scientific employee of the Museum of Occupation.

The Soviet period has remained almost uninvestigated . The only exception are activities of the Soviet repressive institutions. It is worth mentioning, that not only Russian, but also Latvian historians has spoken about repressions against the Russian population of Latvia. A good example is the article by Irene Shneidere „Soviet Repressions towards against the Russians of Latvia in the summer of 1940”97, where she hade marked out, that the largest number of arrested people specific during that period were Russians. First of all, public and political figures were repressed, especially from the emigrant circles. Besides, the „class approach” during repressions did not play any principal role.

The time has come to give the objective evaluation also to the post-Stalin’s period in the history of Latvia, as well, moreover, to show impartially the role and the place of Russians during that period in the history of our country.

As we can see, during the last 20 years a considerable amount of works on the history of Russians in Latvia have been written. They are written, both, in Russian and in Latvian. There are also works in foreign languages. Among the authors, there are Russians, Latvians, Jews and representatives of other nationalities. As to the quality, not all of them are of high value. Nevertheless, each of them, to a lower or higher degree, adds to the mosaic on the history of Latvia’s Russians. To a certain degree, the work of historians assists in rapprochement and increase the understanding, both, between different groups of Russian people (depending on the rooting in Latvia, on the ideological postulates) and betw3een Russians, Latvians and other nationalities, living in our country.


1.See: «Историяи и культура русского населения Латвии: краткий библиографический указатель». Составитель Т.Фейгмане. В сб. Русские в Латвии. История и современность. Выпуск 2 (1997), Рига, с. 117-131; L.Dribins.(2008.) «Latvijas nacionālo minoritašu historiogrāfija». Latvijas vēstures institūta žurnāls. Nr.3:117.-139.

2. See: Чешихин Е.В. (1884, 1885, 1887) История Ливонии с древнейших времен. В 3-х томах, Рига.; Сборник материалов и статей по истории Прибалтийского края(под редакцией Е.В.Чешихина) (1877, 1879, 1880, 1882), Рига.; Чешихин Е.В. (1884) Краткая история Прибалтийского края. Рига.

3. See.: Чешихин Е.В. История Ливонии с древнейших времен. Том 1, с.25-26.

4. See: Самарин Ю.Ф.(1868, 1871, 1874, 1875, 1876) Окраины России. – Вып. 1-2. – Прага, Выпуск 3- 6. – Berlin.

5. See: Ковальчук С.Н. (1998) «Взыскуя истину...». Из истории русской религиозной, философской и общественно-политической мысли в Латвии: Ю.Ф.Самарин, Е.В.Чешихин, К.Ф.Жаков, А.В.Вейдеман. Середина XIX в. – середина XX в.). Рига: Институт философии и социологии Латвийского университета.

6.See: Историко-статистическое описание церквей и приходов Рижской епархии (1893, 1894, 1895, 1902) . Вып.1 - 4.; Лейсман Н.А. (1908) Судьба православия в Лифляндии с 40-х до 80-х гг. XIX века. – Рига; Синайский П.(1910) Исторический очерк Рижского кафедрального собора. - Рига etc..

7. See: Лесков Н.С. (1863) «О раскольниках г.Риги преимущественно в отношении к школам». – Санкт_Петербкрг (или см. «Златоструй». - Староверческий журнал. – Выпуск 1 (1990) – Рига ; Выпуск 2 (1993); «Русские деятели в Остзейском крае (свои и чужие наблюдения, опыты и заметки)». Исторический вестник, 1882, №8; «Иродова работа (русские картины в Остзейском крае)». – Исторический вестник, 1882, №8.

8. See: Русские в Латвии. Сборник. 1 выпуск (1933). Рига,.: 2 выпуск (1934). - Рига.; Русский ежегодник на 1938 год (1937) – Рига.; Русский ежегодник на 1939 год (1938) – Рига.; Русский ежегодник на 1940 год (1939) – Рига; Сахаров С.П. Рижские православные архипастыри за 100 лет: 1836-1936 (1937) – Краслава,.; Православные церкви в Латгалии: Историко-статистическое описание (1939) – Рига.

9. See: Заволоко И.Н. (1933) О старообрядцах г.Риги.- Рига.; журнал «Родная старина» (1927-1933). Редактор И.Н.Заволоко.

10. See: Поздеева И.В. (Россия) (1999) «Иван Никифорович Заволоко и комплексные исследования культуры русского старообрядчества». – «Памяти Ивана Никифоровича Заволоко». – Сборник статей и материалов, посвященных 100-летию И.Н.Заволоко. – Рига, с.16-27; там же –.Пазухина Н.В (Латвия) (1999) «И.Н.Заволоко: вехи жизненного пути», с.28 – 97; там же Г.В.Маркелов (1999) (Россия). «Изограф из Причудья», с.98-113 etc..

11. See: Енш Г. (1947) «Московское торговое подворье в Риге в XVII веке». – Вопросы истории, №12: с.75-79.

12. See: Дорошенко В.В. (1985) Торговля и купечество Риги в XVII веке. – Рига: Зинатне.

13. See: Заварина А.А. (1986) Русское население восточной Латвии во второй половине XIX – начале XX века. Историко-этнографический очер». – Рига: Зинатне.

14. See: Caune A.. ... (1992) Pati Rīga ūdenī.. Arheologa stāsts par zudušo Rīdziņas upi, par pirmo ostu, kuģniecības līdzekļiem un amatiem senajā Rīgā. –Rīga:Zinātne.

15. See: Caune A.. ...Pati Rīga ūdenī., 87.- 107 lpp.

16. See: Ivanovs Aleksandrs (2004) «Kompleksa “Moscowitica –Ruthenica” ieviešana zinatnes aprītē: arheogrāfisks apskats». Latvijas arhīvi. Redakcijas padomes priekšsēdētājs Nikolajs Rižovs. Nr.2: 47.-85.lpp.; Ivanovs Aleksandrs, Kuzņecovs Anatolijs (2006) «Senākie līgimi ar Smoļensku Latvijas Valsts vēstures arhīvā: datēšanas un atribūcijas jautājumu». – Latvijas arhīvi. Nr..2 : lpp.51-118.

17. See.: Caune A. (2006) «Jurija Novoselova 20.gadu etnogrāfiskas fotogrāfijas». Latvijas vēstures institūta žurnāls. Nr.3. :139.-150.lpp.

18. See: Фридрих И.Д. (1936) Фольклор русских крестьян Яунлатгальского уезда. Кн.1. – Рига; Русский фольклор в Латвии: песни, обряды и детский фольклор. Сост.И.Д.Фридрих(1980) – Рига.

19. See: Фридриховсие чтения (1977). Сборник посвящен памяти Юрия Ивановича Абызова. Рига: Латвийский университет, Центр русистики.

20. See: Семенова М.Ф. (1966, 1972) Сопоставление грамматики русского и латышского языков. – Рига; Русско-латышские языковые связи: Учебное пособие. – Рига.

21. See: Вахрушева Е.А. (1958, 1957) Дорога исканий. – Рига; Юрий Юровский. – Рига.; Власова Т. (1982) Николай Барабанов. – Рига.; Пярн М., Берсеньев Л. (1950) 50 лет сценической деятельности народной артистки ЛатвССР Лидии Никитичны Мельниковой. – Рига; Рижский театр русской драмы. 1883-1958 (1958) – Рига.; Рижский театр Русской драмы (альбом) (1974) – Рига; Рижский театр Русской драмы. Фотоальбом (1983) – Рига.; Рижский театр русской драмы. Очерк истории (1983) – Рига; Рижский театр русской драмы. 1883-1983 (1983) – Рига etc.

22. See: Подмазов А.А. (1970) Старообрядчество в Латвии.

23. See: Podmazovs A.. Veсticība Latvijā (2001) – Rīga: LU Filozofijas un socioloģijas institūts;.Подмазов А (2002, 2005, 2006. 2010) «Старообрядчество в системе экономического развития (к вопросу о религиозной детерминированности хозяйственной деятельности)». – Русские в Латвии. Из истории и культуры староверия. – Рига: ВЕДИ, с.172-182.; «Вселатвийские старообрядческие съезды (1920-1933)». – В сб. Староверие Латвии. – Рига, с.333-342; «Современное старообрядческое общество в Латвии. – Свобода совести в России: исторический и современный аспекты. – Москва: Российское объединение исследователей религии, с.31-45; Рижские староверы. – Рига: Институт философии и социологии ЛУ, с.6-56 etc.

24. See: Пазухина Н. (1999, 2005, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2006 ) «И.Н.Заволоко: вехи жизненного пути». - Памяти Заволоко Ивана Никифоровича. – Сборник статей и материалов, посвященных 100-летию И.Н.Заволоко, с.28-97; «Культурные традиции латвийских староверов в 20-30 гг. ХХ века». В сб. Староверие Латвии. Отв. редактор-составитель Илларион Иванов, с.119-126; «Latvijas vecticībnieku kultūras prakses mūsdienās». Nacionālā mutvārdu vēsture. Reliģiskās idejas Latvijā. Letonikas Otrais congress, 169.-192.lpp.; «Cita citādība: Latvijas vecticībnieku kultūrsociālā pieredze 20. gadsimtā”. Reliģiskā dažādība Latgalē. Red. Valdis Tēraudkalns. Rīga: Latvijas Bībeles biedrība, 133.-160.lpp.; «Tradīcijas saglabāšanas un aktualizācijas problēma Latvijas vecticībnieku kultūrā». Letonikas Pirmais kongress. Modernitāte: filozofija, kristīgās vērtības, mutvārdu vēsture Latvijā. Rīga: LZA, LU Filozofijas un socioloģijas institūts, 442.- 451.lpp.; «Krievu vecticībnieki Latvijā: savējie vai svešie?». Mīti Latvijas vēsturē. Sast. Kaspars Zellis. Rīga, 39.-48. lpp.

25. See: Фейгман Т. (2007) «Дмитрий Александрович Левицкий (17.02.1907 – 9.01.2007)». – Даугава (Рига), № 1 : с.158-160.

26. See: Левицкий Д. (1980, 1990) «О положении русских в независимой Латвии». – Новый журнал. – Нью-Йорк, № 141: с.206-233; «Национальность жертв не существенна для коммунистической власти..». Родник (Рига), № 3: с.52-57.

27. See: Dribins Leo (2009.) «Latvijas nacionālo minoritāšu historiogrāfija atjaunotajā Latvijas Republikā». 1990. – 2008. gada». Latvijas vēstures institūta žurnāls, Nr..2:95.-117.lpp.

28. See: Абызов Юрий (1990, 1991) Русское печатное слово в Латвии. 1917-1944 гг. Био-библиографический справочник. Части 1 – 4, Stanford.

29. See: Фейгмане Татьяна (2000) Русские в довоенной Латвии. Рига: Балтийский русский институт.

30. See: Флейшман Лазарь, Абызов Юрий, Равдин Борис. Русская печать в Риге: из истории газеты Сегодня 1930-х годов (1997) . Книги I – V – Stanford.

31.Ibidem , книга I . На грани эпох, с.199.

32. See: От Лифляндии - к Латвии. Прибалтика русскими глазами (1993). Латвийское общество русской культуры. Составитель Ю.Абызов. Том 1. Москва: Аркаюр.

33. See: От Лифляндии - к Латвии. Прибалтика русскими глазами (1999). Латвийское общество русской культуры. Составитель Ю.Абызов. Том 2. Рига: Insight.

34. Ibidem, с.3.

35. See: Балтийский архив. Русская культура в Прибалтике. Том 1- 3. Редактор И.Белобровцева. Таллинн: Авенариус (год издания не указан).; Том 4 –6 (1999, 1999, 2000). Составитель Ю. Абызов. Рига: Даугава; Том 7 (год издания не указан). Составитель и редактор П.Лавринец. Вильнюс: Русские творческие ресурсы Балтии; Том 8 (2004). Составление и комментарии Ю.Абызова. Рига: Даугава; Том 9 (2005). Составитель и редактор П.Лавринец. Вильнюс: Издательство Вильнюсского университета; Том 10 (205). Составитель и автор вступительных статей Ю.Абызов. Рига: Даугава.; Том 11 (2006). Под редакцией И.Белобровцевой. Таллинн: Авенариус.

36. See: Русская книга в Латвии. 1990-2001. Материалы к указателю (2003). Составители: Ю.Абызов, К.Каменский, Б.Равдин, А.Ракитянский. - Рига: Даугава.

37. Михайлов Иван Янис (2004) Борис Федорович Инфантьев. Жизнь и труды. Био-библиографический указатель. Рига: Веди.

38.Ibidem, с.20.

39. See: Бейкман Э., Инфантьев Б, Цитович В. (1957) «Вопросы методики преподавания русского языка в латышских школах». – Русский язык в национальтной школе. №5: с.68-74.; Францман Е., Инфантьев Б., Вилан О., Семенова М. (1962, 1964, 1966-1971) Русский язык для IX-XI классов школ с латышским языком обучения. Рига: Латгосиздат; Инфантьев Б. (1963, последующие издания 1964-1968, 1970-1973, 1981;) Латышская литература. Книга для чтения в V – VIII классах с русским языком обучения. – Рига: Латгосиздат.

40. See: Инфантьев Б., Лосев А. (1965) «Буревестники (Горький и Райнис)». Советская молодежь, 7 апреля; «Рига Райниса». Ригас Балсс, 19 июня;. «Сквозь даль времен» (Фонвизин в Латвии), Советская молодежь, 12 декабря; Infantjevs B.., Losevs A. (1967., 1969.) «Divu literatūru draudzība». Skolotāju Avīze, 5.jūlijs., «Grāmatai 100 gadu. (Ļ.Tolstoja “Karš un miers”)». – Skolotāju Avīze,17.decembris. Инфантьев Б., Лосев А. (1978, 1983) Русское слоаво. Учебник для IX-XI классов вечерних сменных школ. Рига: Звайгзне etc. ( see: Михайлов И.Я.. (2004) Борис Федорович Инфантьев. Жизнь и труды. Био-библиогафический указатель. – Рига: Веди).

41. See: Инфантьев Б. (1997, 1997, 1997, 1997, 2002) «Латгальские староверы в видении латышских писателей». – Русские Прибалтики: механизм культурной интеграции (до 1940 г.) – Вильнюс, с.75-88; «Образ русского в латышском фольклоре». Русские в Латвии. Выпуск 2, с.74-105; «Русский язык и литература в латышских школах 20-х – 30-х годов». Там же, с. 106-116; «Русичи на земле латышей. Доливонский период». Сборник научных трудов Балтийского русского института. № 3 :с.90-136.; «Образ Латвии 20-30-х в творчестве русских зарубежных писателей». Диаспоры (Москва). №3: с.28-45.

42. See: Инфантьев Б.. (2007) Балто-славянские культурные связи. Лексика, мифология, фольклор. – Рига: Веди.

43. See: Русские в Латвии. История и современность (1992). Выпуск 1. Рига: Русская община Латвии.

44. See: Русские в Латвии. История и современность. (1997). Выпуск 2. Рига: Центр гуманитарных исследований и просвещения «Веди».

45. See: Русские в Латвии. Из истории и культуры староверия (2002). Выпуск 3-й. Рига: Старообрядческое общество Латвии, Фонд гуманитарных исследований и просвещения «Веди».

46. See: Памяти Заволоко Ивана Никифоровича. Сборник статей и материалов, посвященных 100-летию И.Н.Заволоко (1999). Рига.

47. See: Староверие Латвии (2005) Сборник статей. Отв.редактор-составитель Илларион Иванов. Рига.

48. See: Международные Заволокинские чтения. Сборник 1-й (2006).

49. See: Никонов В. Староверие Латгалии. Очерки по истории староверческих обществ Режицкого и Люцинского уездов (2-ая половаина XVII –1-я половина XX вв.)(2008). – Издание Резекненской кладбищенской старообрядческой общины.

50. See: Ковальчук С. (1998) Взыскуя истину.... – Рига: Институт философии и социологии ЛУ.

51. See: Ковальчук С. (2008) «Рижский архив Каллистрата Жакова». – Россия и Балтия. Войны, революции и общество. Выпуск 5. Москва: Наука, с.182-210.

52. See: Ковальчук С. (2002) «Традиции русской философии в 20-30-х годах 20 столетия в Латвии». Даугава, № 12.

53. See: Ковальчук С. (2010) «22 года из жизни ученого: цивилист Василий Синайский в Латвии». Альманах общества SEMINARIUM HORTUS HUMANITATIS. – XXI. – Русская интеллигенция, с.61-72.

54. See: Ковальчук С. (2009) «И мелкий щебень радостей и бед ...» (о поэте Игоре Чиннове). Берега (Санкт-Петербург). Информационно-аналитический сборник о русском зарубежье. Вып. 11-12.

55. See: Ковальчук С. (2005, 2003) «Рижские староверы в период гонений в 40-е – 50-е годы XIX века». Староверие Латвии, с.280-289; «Baltijas ģenerālgubernators kņazs A.A.Suvorovs un vecticībnieku vajāšana 40.-50.gados». Latvijas vēstures institūta žurnāls. Nr.2 :22.-34. lpp. etc.

56. See: Volkovs V. (1996) Krievi Latvijā. Rīga: LZA Filozofijas un socioloģijas institūta Etnisko pētījumu centrs.

57. See: Volkovs V. (1998.) «Krievi». Mazākumtautību vēsture Latvijā. Eksperimentāls metodisks līdzeklis, 83.-116.lpp.

58. See: Apine I.,.Volkovs V. (1998.) Slāvi Latvijā (Etniskās vēstures apcerejums).

59. See: Mazākumtautības Latvijā. Vēsture un tagadne. Sastādītājs: Leo Dribins (2007).

60. See: Apine Ilga, Volkovs Vladislavs (2007.) Latvijas krievu identitāte: vēsturisks un socioloģisks apcerējums. Rīga: Latvijas Universitātes Filozofijas un socioloģijas institūts, Īpašu uzdevumu ministra sabiedrības integrācijas lietās sekretariāts, Daugavpils Universitāte.

61. See: Плюханов Б. (1993) РСХД в Латвии и Эстонии. Материалы к истории Руссуого Студенческого Христтианского вижения. Париж, Ymca-Press.

62.Ibidem, c.91.

63. See: Гаврилин А. (1999) Очерки истории Рижской епархии (19 век). Рига: Филокалия.

64. See: Православие в Латвии. Исторические очерки (1993,1997, 2001, 2004, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2010). Сборник статей под редакцией А.В.Гаврилина. Выпуск 1. Рига: Балто-славянское общество культурного развития и сотрудничества,.; Выпуск 2. Рига: Благовест; Выпуски 3- 8. Рига: Филокалия.

65. See: Гаврилин А. (2009) Под покровом Тихвинской иконы. Архипастырский путь Иоанна (Гарклавса). Санкт-Петербург:Аллаборг.

66. See: Демина Н. (1999) Рижский Свято-Троице-Сергиев женский монастырь.

67. Рижсий Кафедральный собор Рождества Христова. Rīgas Kristus Piedzimšanas Pareizticīgo katedrāle. Orthodox Cathedral of the Nativity of Christ in Riga (2006). Синод Латвийской Православной церкви.

68. See: Виноградная лоза (2008), №9 (123).

69. See: Šterns Indriķis (1995., 1996.) «Pareizticība Senlatvijā». Latvijas vēsture. Galv. redaktore Ļ.Zīle. Nr.4: 9.-11.lpp.; Nr.1:3.-7.lpp.; Nr.3: 3.-6.lpp.; Nr.4: 20.-23. lpp.; Nr.5: 70.-72.lpp.

70. See: Šterns Indriķis (1996.) «Latvieši un krievi viduslaiku Rīgā». Latvijas vēstures institūta žurnāls, Nr.2: 22.-54.lpp.

71. See: Покровское кладбище. Слава и забвение (2004). Сборник статей. Составители С.Видякина, С.Ковальчук. Рига: Multicentrs.

 72. See: Журавлев С. (1990, 1990, 1997, 1999, 1995) Покровское кладбище – памятник рижской старины; «...Ливонские я проезжал поля...». Русские писатели в Риге, Митаве, Динабурге и других городах Остзейского края (16 в. – 1-я пол. 19 в.); Венок Собинову. Сборник материалов к 125-летию со дня рождения Л.В.Собинова; Федор Ивановис Шаляпин и Латвия. Мемориальный сборник к 125-летию со дня рождения (1873-1938); Русские писатели в Лифляндии и Курляндии (2-я половина 19-го века). Рига: Улей, etc.

73. See: Рижская городская русская гимназия (бывшая Ломоносовская). 1919-1935. Сборник воспоминаний и статей (1999). Составители: Салтупе М.В., Фейгмане Т.Д., при участии Левицкого Д.А.

74. See: Климов Е. (2002) Русские художники. Составители: Салтупе М.В., Рудзите Л.А., Фейгмане Т.Д..

75. See: Е.Е.Климов (2006) Избранные работы. Составитель А.Е.Климов.

76. See: Рижский библиофил (2003). Рига: Библиофил & Коллекционер Анатолий Ракитянский.

77. See: Талберг Ф. (2003) Барклай де Толли и Балтийский край. Рига.

78. See: Виноградов Сергей (2001) Прежняя Москва. Воспоминания. Автор-составитель Нина Лапидус. Рига: Multicentrs.

79. See: Пухляк О., Борисов Д. (2003) Русские в Латвии. Со средневековья до конца XIX века». Учебное пособие для общеобразовательной школы. Рига: Apgads “SI”.

80. See: Пухляк О. (2007) 100 русских портретов в истории Латвии. Рига: D.V.I.N.A.

81. See: Выдающиеся русские латвийцы. Библиографический справочник (2008). – Координатор проекта И.Гусев. Рига: (IK ZORIKS).

82. See: Дименштейн И. (2004, 2007, 2007) Русская Рига. Исторические очерки; Рига и рижане 100 лет назад; Имена русской Латвии. Рига: Polaris etc.

83. See: Прибалтийские русские: история в памятниках культуры (1710-2010). Под общей редакцией Гапоненко А.В.(2010) – Рига: Институт европейских исследований.

84. See: Гроссен Г.И. «Жизнь в Риге. Извлечение из семейной хроники и воспоминаний Генриха Ивановича Гроссена (Нео-Сильвестра») (1994). Даугава. № 1: с.156-187; №2: с.167-192; №3: 169-192; №4: с.165-192.

85. See: Синайская Наталия.(1998, 2001) Круг жизни профессора Василия Ивановича Синайского. Воспоминанич дочери Н.В.Синайской, восстановленные по записям и памяти. Рига. .

 86. See: Zemribo Gvido (1999.) «Profesors Vasilijs Sinaiskis». Latvijas vēsture. Nr.2. :121.-124.lpp.

87. See: Анохин Дмитрий (1998, 2004) Как мы жили в довоенной Риге; Незабываемое прошлое и настоящее. Рига: Улей.

88. See: Никифорова Тамара (2006) Баржа на Оби. Новеллы по памяти.

89. See: Закке Игорь (2003-2004) О близких, родных, и о себе.

90. See: Петрова-Матиса Галина (2008). Звезда, погасшая до срока.

91. See: Дозорцев Владлен (2009) Настоящее прошедшее время.

92. See: Savčenko Vasilijs (2006.) «Krass pavērziens vēsturē». Latvijas vēstures institūta žurnāls. Nr.2.:144.-155.lpp.

93. See: «Рутения» в Риге и на чужбине. Рижская русская студенческая корпорация «Рутения» (2005). Составители: Е.А.Осипов, Г.Г.Гроссен и Д.А.Левицкий. – Вашингтон-Рига.

94. See: Даугава. 1977-2006. Роспись (2007). Составили: А.Ракитянский, Б.Гехт, В.Авдонина, Ж..Эзит. Рига: Даугава, 2007.

 95. See: Krūmiņa Irīna. «Krievu sabiedrība un politisko partiju veidošanās process Latvijā 1905. –1907. gados» (1994.). Latvijas vēstures institūta žurnāls, Nr.2.:69.-96.lpp.

96. See: Neiburgs Uldis (2003., 2007.) «Ģenerālis Vlasovs un krievu atbrīvošanas kustība: ieskats historiogrāfijā». Latvijas vēsture. Nr.4.:90.-99.lpp.; «Latvijas krievi Vācijas bruņotajos spēkos Otrajā pasaules karā». Latvijas vēstures institūta žurnāls. Nr.1. :159.- 164. lpp.

97. See: Šneidere Irēne (2005.) «Padomju represijas pret Latvijas krieviem 1940.gada vasarā». Latvijas vēstures institūta žurnāls. Nr.1.:109.-131.lpp.